Comparison of computerized and paper‐and‐pencil memory tests in detection of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of diagnostic studies
Publication in refereed journal

Altmetrics Information

Other information
The use of computerized cognitive tests for dementia screening is getting common nowadays, but it is still uncertain whether computerized tests can be an alternative of traditional paper-and-pencil tests for screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. This study would like to compare the diagnostic performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil memory tests in detection of MCI and dementia.

Diagnostic studies comparing computerized or paper-and-pencil memory tests with the standard diagnostic criterion for MCI or dementia were identified from OVID databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Supplementary search was conducted in Google Scholar. Bivariate random-effects models were used to combine the diagnostic performance of memory tests, and presented with a summary receiver-operating characteristic curve. The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of memory tests for detection of MCI, and detection of dementia was the secondary outcome. Risk of bias and reporting quality in included studies was assessed.

A total of 58 studies with 18,678 participants with mean age ranged from 55 to 84 years were included. Both verbal and visual memory tests were available. For the verbal memory tests on patients with MCI, computerized tests showed diagnostic accuracy of 0.89 sensitivity (95% CI=0.69 to 0.97) and 0.82 specificity (95% CI=0.70 to 0.90), whereas paper-and-pencil tests showed diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 sensitivity (95% CI=0.82 to 0.90) and 0.82 specificity (95% CI=0.76 to 0.86). For the visual memory tests on MCI patients, computerized tests showed diagnostic accuracy of 0.79 sensitivity (95% CI=0.71 to 0.84) and 0.80 specificity (95% CI=0.71 to 0.86), whereas paper-and-pencil tests showed diagnostic accuracy of 0.80 sensitivity (95% CI=0.67 to 0.89) and 0.68 specificity (0.51 to 0.81). The findings are also comparable to those with dementia (Table 1).

Both verbal and visual computerized memory tests showed comparable diagnostic performance to the traditional paper-and-pencil tests. Computerized cognitive tests show a great potential for self-administration of cognitive screening. When the records can be digitalized, long-term monitoring on cognitive function will be feasible for better management of dementia.
All Author(s) ListTsoi K, Chan JYC, Kwong JSW, Wong A, Kwok T
Journal nameAlzheimer's and Dementia
Volume Number14
Issue NumberSuppl. 7
Article numberP3-295
PagesP1194 - P1194
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom

Last updated on 2021-19-09 at 00:46