Diabetes-related complications and mortality in patients with young-onset latent autoimmune diabetes: A 14-year analysis of the prospective Hong Kong Diabetes register
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AbstractOBJECTIVEYoung-onset diabetes is heterogeneous in etiology and disease progression. We compared the incidence of diabetes-related complications and mortality in patients with young-onset type 2 diabetes with or without anti-GAD antibodies and patients with type 1 diabetes. We determined changes in glycemic control before and after commencement of insulin therapy stratified by antibody status.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSBetween 1994 and 2012, 1,504 consecutively enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes who had received a diagnosis at <40 years of age and had available anti-GAD antibody status and 251 patients with type 1 diabetes from the Hong Kong Diabetes Register were followed for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), severe hypoglycemia, and all-cause mortality until June 2015. Information on insulin use and HbA(1c) levels during follow-up was obtained.RESULTSAnti-GAD antibodies were positive in 8.1% of patients with type 2 diabetes (GAD(+)). By multivariate Cox regression, patients with GAD(+) had a lower hazard of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, P = 0.048), a higher hazard of severe hypoglycemia (HR 1.63, P = 0.032), and a similar hazard of ESRD and mortality compared with counterparts without anti-GAD antibodies (GAD(-)). Compared with patients with type 1 diabetes, ESRD was more likely to develop (HR 2.91, P = 0.043) in patients with GAD(+), but no differences were detected in the hazards of severe hypoglycemia, CVD, and mortality. Among new insulin users (n = 304), patients with GAD(+) had larger reductions in HbA(1c) than patients with GAD(-)after 12 months of insulin use (-2.30 3.80% [25 +/- 42 mmol/mol] vs -0.72 +/- 1.86% [8 +/- 20 mmol/mol], P = 0.05).CONCLUSIONSAnti-GAD positivity identifies a group of patients with a different prognosis compared with patients without antibodies and those with type 1 diabetes. Patients with GAD(+) responded differently to insulin compared with patients with GAD(-).
All Author(s) ListLuk AO., Lau E., Lim C., Kong A., Chow E., Ma RC., Chan JC.
Journal nameDiabetes Care
Volume Number42
Issue Number6
PublisherAmerican Diabetes Association
Pages1042 - 1050
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordsdiabetes, LADA

Last updated on 2021-22-09 at 01:41