Anisotropic ligand nanogeometry modulates the adhesion and polarization state of macrophages
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AbstractMaterial implants trigger host reactions generated by cells, such as macrophages, which display dynamic adhesion and polarization including M1 inflammatory state and M2 anti-inflammatory state. Creating materials that enable diverse nanoscale display of integrin-binding groups, such as RGD ligand, can unravel nanoscale recruitment and ligation of integrin, which modulate cellular adhesion and activation. Here, we synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs) with various nanoscale anisotropies (i.e., aspect ratios, ARs), but in similar surface areas, and controlled their substrate conjugation to display an anisotropic ligand nanogeometry without modulating ligand density. Using nanoscale immunolabeling, we demonstrated that highly anisotropic ligand-coated GNRs ("AR4" and "AR7") facilitated the recruitment of integrin beta 1 on macrophages to their nanoscale surfaces. Consequently, highly anisotropic GNRs (e.g., "AR4" and "AR7") elevated the adhesion and M2 state of macrophages, with the inhibition of their M1 state in the culture and mice, entailing rho-associated protein kinase. This nanoscale anisotropic nanogeometry provides a novel and critical parameter to be considered in the generation of biomaterials to potentially modulate host reactions to the implants for immunomodulatory tissue regeneration.
Acceptance Date11/02/2019
All Author(s) ListHeemin Kang, Siu Hong Dexter Wong, Qi Pan, Gang Li, Liming Bian
Journal nameNano Letters
Volume Number19
Issue Number3
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
Place of PublicationUSA
Pages1963 - 1975
LanguagesEnglish-United States
Keywordsanisotropic nanogeometry, nanoscale immunolabeling, integrin recruitment

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