The neuroprotection of hypoxic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimental traumatic brain injury
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AbstractTraumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. At present there is no effective treatment. Previous studies have demonstrated that topical application of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells can improve functional recovery in experimental traumatic brain injury. In this study, we evaluated whether hypoxic preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells could enhance the recovery from traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury was induced with an electromagnetically controlled cortical impact device. Two million mesenchymal stem cells derived from the adipose tissue of transgenic green fluorescent protein Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured under either hypoxic (2.5% O2 for 18 hours) (N = 30) or normoxic (18% O2) (N = 30) conditions, then topically applied to the exposed cerebral cortex within 1 hour after traumatic brain injury. A thin layer of fibrin was used to fix the cells in position. No treatment was given to the animals with traumatic brain injury (N = 30). Animals that underwent craniectomy without traumatic brain injury were treated as the sham group (N = 15). Neurological functions were evaluated with water maze, Roto-rod and gait analysis. Animals were sacrificed at days 3, 7, and 14 for microscopic examinations and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The rats treated with hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells showed the greatest improvement in neurological function recovery. More green fluorescent protein-positive cells were found in the injured brain parenchyma treated with hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells that co-expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, Nestin, and NeuN. Moreover, there was early astrocytosis triggered by the infiltration of more glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells and microgliosis was suppressed with fewer ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1-positive cells in the penumbra region of hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells group at day 3. Compared with normoxic mesenchymal stem cells and traumatic brain injury only groups, there was significantly (p < 0.05) less neuronal death in both the hippocampus and penumbral regions in sections treated with hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells as determined by Cresyl violet and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining respectively. The expression of pro-inflammatory genes (interleukin 6, interleukin 1a, interleukin 1b, tumor necrosis factor α) was upregulated and apoptotic gene (Caspase-3) expression was suppressed at day 3. Anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) and anti-apoptotic (BCL2 associated agonist of cell death) gene expression was upregulated at days 7 and 14. Our study showed that a hypoxic precondition enhanced the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells on neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury.
Acceptance Date16/05/2019
All Author(s) ListHui Ma, Ping Kuen Lam, Cindy See Wai Tong, Kin Ki Yan Lo, George Kwok Chu Wong, Wai Sang Poon
Journal nameCell Transplantation
Volume Number28
Issue Number7
PublisherSAGE Publishing
Pages874 - 884
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordsneuroprotection, hypoxic adipose tissue-derived, mesenchymal stem cells, experimental traumatic brain injury

Last updated on 2020-01-07 at 04:14