Beyond the ‘east–west’ dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood.
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AbstractMarkus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts.
All Author(s) ListVignoles VL, Owe E, Becker M, Smith PB, Easterbrook MJ, Brown R, Gonzalez R, Didier N, Carrasco D, Cadena MP, Lay S, Schwartz SJ, Des Rosiers SE, Villamar JA, Gavreliuc A, Zinkeng M, Kreuzbauer R, Baguma P, Martin M, Tatarko A, Herman G, de Sauvage I, Courtois M, Gardarsdottir RB, Harb C, Gallo IS, Gil PP, Clemares RL, Campara G, Nizharadze G, Macapagal MEJ, Jalal B, Bourguignon D, Zhang JX, Lv SB, Chybicka A, Yuki M, Zhang X, Espinosa A, Valk A, Abuhamdeh S, Amponsah B, Ozgen E, Guner EU, Yamakoglu N, Chobthamkit P, Pyszczynski T, Kesebir P, Trujillo EV, Balanta P, Ayala BC, Koller SH, Jaafar JL, Gausel N, Fischer R, Milfont TL, Kusdil E, Caglar S, Aldhafri S, Ferreira MC, Mekonnen KH, Wang Q, Fulop M, Torres A, Camino L, Lemos FCS, Fritsche I, Moller B, Regalia C, Manzi C, Brambilla M, Bond MH
Journal nameJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Year2016
Month8
Volume Number145
Issue Number8
PublisherAMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC
Pages966 - 1000
ISSN0096-3445
eISSN1939-2222
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordsculture, independence-interdependence, self-construals
Web of Science Subject CategoriesPsychology, Experimental;Psychology

Last updated on 2020-02-08 at 02:17