Clostridium difficile toxin B induces autophagic cell death in colonocytes
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AbstractToxin B (TcdB) is a major pathogenic factor of Clostridum difficile. However, the mechanism by which TcdB exerts its cytotoxic action in host cells is still not completely known. Herein, we report for the first time that TcdB induced autophagic cell death in cultured human colonocytes. The induction of autophagy was demonstrated by the increased levels of LC3‐II, formation of LC3+ autophagosomes, accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and reduced levels of the autophagic substrate p62/SQSTM1. TcdB‐induced autophagy was also accompanied by the repression of phosphoinositide 3‐kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activity. Functionally, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin or chloroquine or knockdown of autophagy‐related genes Beclin 1, Atg5 and Atg7 attenuated TcdB‐induced cell death in colonocytes. Genetic ablation of Atg5, a gene required for autophagosome formation, also mitigated the cytotoxic effect of TcdB. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that autophagy serves as a pro‐death mechanism mediating the cytotoxic action of TcdB in colonocytes. This discovery suggested that blockade of autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for C. difficile infection.
All Author(s) ListHung Chan, Shan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jeffery Ho, Czarina C.H. Leung, Wai T. Wong, Yuanyuan Tian, Xiaodong Liu, Thomas N.Y. Kwong, Raphael C.Y. Chan, Sidney S.B. Yu, Maggie H.T. Wang, Gary Tse, Sunny H. Wong, Matthew T.V. Chan, William K.K. Wu
Journal nameJournal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Volume Number22
Issue Number4
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Inc.
Pages2469 - 2477
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsAutophagy, Mechanistic target of rapamycin, Mouse embryonic fibroblast, Toxin B

Last updated on 2021-17-09 at 00:03