德川日本鍾馗信仰本地化的文獻研究 (A Textual Study on the Localization of Zhong Kui in Tokugawa Japan)
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Abstract日本是中國域外唯一接受鍾馗信仰之地。日本人尊稱鍾馗為鍾馗、鍾馗大臣及鍾馗大明神。鍾馗在德川時代( 1603-1868)大放異彩,成功融入本土宗教與文化。本地化的過程早在近世以前已進行,至德川已基本上完成,創造出有異於中國的日式鍾馗信仰及文化。
鍾馗信仰東渡日本後跟中國分道揚鑣,出現明顯的變化。近世日本鍾馗信仰有三大特色:第一,鍾馗從中國民間信仰變成日本神道及佛教體系的一部分,同時亦出現鍾馗為神道神祇或佛教菩薩化身的論述。第二,其形象變得日式,明顯受能劇、歌舞伎、浮世繪及農村風俗的影響。第三,融入本土風俗與文化,在祭日、建築、民間宗教、藝術、文學及舞臺中均見鍾馗的身影。
本研究是首個整理德川時代鍾馗文化的研究,旨在透過原始史料探討鍾馗信仰如何在德川時代融入日本文化及成為豐富德川宗教、民俗及文化的素材。

Japan is the only nation outside China that has adapted Zhong Kui (Shōki in Japanese) belief into its culture. The Japanese have given such honorific titles to Zhong Kui as Shoki-sama (Mr. Zhong Kui), Shoki-daijin (Minister Zhong Kui) and Shoki daimyojin (Zhong Kui, the Deity). Zhong Kui belief reached its peak in the Tokugawa period (1603-1868), when it was fully absorbed into Japan's native religion and culture. The localization of Zhong Kui in Japan started in the medieval period and was basically completed during the Tokugawa period, when the Japanese worshipped, perceived and presented Zhong Kui in their own ways.
Zhong Kui belief was localized in Tokugawa Japan in the following ways. First, Zhong Kui was transformed from a Taoist immortal into a Shinto deity, and incorporated into the Japanese Shinto-Buddhist framework. Second, the images of Zhong Kui became more Japanese, influenced as they were by Noh drama, kabuki, ukiyoe and matsuri. Third, Zhong Kui became a part of Japanese culture and his presence can be found in Tokugawa art, literature, theatre, architecture and folk religion.
This is the first academic study of Zhong Kui in Tokugawa Japan. Based on Japanese primary sources, this research aims to examine how Zhong Kui was localized to enrich Tokugawa religion, folklore and culture.
All Author(s) List吳偉明
Journal name臺灣師大歷史學報
Year2017
Month12
Issue Number58
Publisher國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系
Place of Publication臺灣
Pages201 - 222
LanguagesChinese-Traditional
Keywords鍾馗信仰, 德川日本, 本地化, 神道, 佛教, 吳偉明

Last updated on 2021-07-05 at 01:17