The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative
Publication in refereed journal

香港中文大學研究人員
替代計量分析
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其它資訊
摘要Background:
There is evidence that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder. However, most of the available data on the epidemiology of this condition originate from high income countries in the West. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative provides an opportunity to investigate the prevalence, course, impairment, socio-demographic correlates, comorbidity, and treatment of this condition across a range of high, middle, and low income countries in different geographic regions of the world, and to address the question of whether differences in SAD merely reflect differences in threshold for diagnosis.

Methods:
Data from 28 community surveys in the WMH Survey Initiative, with 142,405 respondents, were analyzed. We assessed the 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence of SAD, age of onset, and severity of role impairment associated with SAD, across countries. In addition, we investigated socio-demographic correlates of SAD, comorbidity of SAD with other mental disorders, and treatment of SAD in the combined sample. Cross-tabulations were used to calculate prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and treatment. Survival analysis was used to estimate age of onset, and logistic regression and survival analyses were used to examine socio-demographic correlates.

Results:
SAD 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence estimates are 1.3, 2.4, and 4.0% across all countries. SAD prevalence rates are lowest in low/lower-middle income countries and in the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions, and highest in high income countries and in the Americas and the Western Pacific regions. Age of onset is early across the globe, and persistence is highest in upper-middle income countries, Africa, and the Eastern Mediterranean. There are some differences in domains of severe role impairment by country income level and geographic region, but there are no significant differences across different income level and geographic region in the proportion of respondents with any severe role impairment. Also, across countries SAD is associated with specific socio-demographic features (younger age, female gender, unmarried status, lower education, and lower income) and with similar patterns of comorbidity. Treatment rates for those with any impairment are lowest in low/lower-middle income countries and highest in high income countries.

Conclusions:
While differences in SAD prevalence across countries are apparent, we found a number of consistent patterns across the globe, including early age of onset, persistence, impairment in multiple domains, as well as characteristic socio-demographic correlates and associated psychiatric comorbidities. In addition, while there are some differences in the patterns of impairment associated with SAD across the globe, key similarities suggest that the threshold for diagnosis is similar regardless of country income levels or geographic location. Taken together, these cross-national data emphasize the international clinical and public health significance of SAD.
出版社接受日期08.06.2017
著者Dan J. Stein, Carmen C. W. Lim, Annelieke M. Roest, Peter de Jonge, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola,Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J. Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Meredith G. Harris, Yanling He, Hristo Hinkov, Itsuko Horiguchi, Chiyi Hu, Aimee Karam, Elie G. Karam, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Margreet ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Miguel Xavier, Ronald C. Kessler, Kate M. Scott, WHO World Mental Health Survey Collaborators
期刊名稱BMC Medicine
出版年份2017
月份7
卷號15
期次1
頁次143
國際標準期刊號1741-7015
語言英式英語
關鍵詞Social anxiety disorder, Social phobia, Cross-national epidemiology, World Mental Health Survey Initiative

上次更新時間 2021-20-06 於 00:10