Intracranial atherosclerosis: From anatomy to pathophysiology.
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AbstractBackground Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis is an important etiology subtype of ischemic stroke. Stenosis severity was thought to be the main reference index for clinical treatment and research. However, stenosis could not reflect the ischemia risk completely, instead the hemodynamic state across the lesion, the extent of collateral circulation, and perfusion impairment downstream the stenosis are more important. Aims We write this review aimed to summarize novel angiographic methods applied in the evaluation of functional severity of ICAS, and commented on their limitations and prospects in future research. Summary of review The main methods to estimate cerebral blood flow including fractional flow assessed by signal intensity ratio, computational fluid dynamics analysis or pressure wire, quantitative magnetic resonance angiography. Fractional flow as a series cerebral hemodynamic parameters may reflect the status of collateral circulation and cerebral blood flow. But the accuracy of the methods was not validated. The method to calculate fractional flow reserve in cardiovascular disease cannot duplicate in cerebrovascular disease. Fractional flow measurement by floating a pressure guidewire across the intracranial stenosis was technically feasible and safe. In the future researches, a non-invasive method should be established to identify high-risk intracranial lesions and may help in decision-making. Conclusions The relationship between stenosis and cerebral blood flow was individualized. Cerebral hemodynamic criteria should be used to screen patients to endovascular treatment, which will optimize the diagnosis and treatment strategies for patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis.
All Author(s) ListYuehua Pu, Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Lawrence KS Wong, Liping Liu
Journal nameInternational Journal of Stroke
Volume Number12
Issue Number3
Pages236 - 245
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom

Last updated on 2021-27-02 at 00:46