Oxidative stress as a risk factor and its role in the development of endometriosis
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AbstractEndometriosis is a common but complex gynecological disorder of unknown pathogenesis. It is characterized by ectopic growth of endometrial tissues. Clinical presentations include pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility during the reproductive age. Many theories have been proposed to understand its pathological mechanism on this occurrence. The classical Sampson's theory of retrograde menstruation has been widely accepted to be the most likely cause since the presence of endometrial cells in the peritoneal cavity. However, little explanation is known on the cellular and molecular events that lead to the survival of these cells that ultimately develop endometriosis. Despite the common occurrence of retrograde menstruation in most women, endometriosis can only occurred in a certain population of women being affected. Within these few years, studies have investigated the possible role of oxidative stress toward the development of endometriosis. It suggested that inflammatory cells would be needed toward promoting the early development of endometriosis. Under oxidative stress, these inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages, generate reactive oxygen species in the peritoneal cavity at the endometriotic sites. The hypoxic environment to the immune cells and endometrial tissues would further augment more inflammatory response into the transplanted sites. These oxidants would enhance the development of endometriosis by inducing chemo-attractants and endometrial cell growth-promoting activity toward neovascularization and then growth of the endometriosis. Although it remains controversial in some studies to positively correlate between endometriosis with the presence of oxidative stress within their studied population, it cannot be denied on the many literatures demonstrating the importance of oxidative stress on promoting neovascularization in endometriosis. Studying oxidative stress in the endometriotic lesions would be of vital importance in understanding the pathophysiological change during development of endometriosis for possible treatments. In this chapter, we will review current findings and methods on depicting the possible role of oxidative stress toward the development of early endometriosis. We will also demonstrate the importance of oxidative stress toward hypoxia, cytokine activation and angiogenesis signaling toward the pathogenesis of early endometriosis. Moreover, we will discuss potential antioxidants therapies that will be useful in the control of the endometriotic lesions. Likewise, we would describe a non-invasive in vivo imaging method as a potential tool for monitoring oxidative stress in endometriosis to understand its role in the early development and growth of endometriosis. © 2013 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
All Author(s) ListMan G.C.W., Wang C.C.
All Editor(s) Listed. by Marta Juarez.
Detailed descriptioned. by Marta Juarez.
Year2013
Month12
Day1
Pages161 - 179
ISBN9781626187313
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom

Last updated on 2020-03-08 at 03:27