Investigation on the site of coronal deformities in Hallux valgus
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AbstractHallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity that is more prevalent in females, characterised by abnormal adduction of the first metatarsal (MT) and valgus deviation of the phalanx on the transverse plane. Increasing evidence indicates that HV is more than a 2D deformity but a 3D one with rotational malalignment. Pronation deformity is seen during clinical examination for HV patients, but the exact origin of this rotational deformity is still unknown. Some attribute it to first tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint rotation, while others attribute it to intra-metatarsal bony torsion. In addition, the correlation between the rotational and transverse plane deformity is inconclusive. Identifying the origin of the rotational deformity will help surgeons choose the optimal surgical procedure while also enhancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of HV. This study aims to (1) develop an objective method for measuring the first MT torsion and first TMT joint rotation; (2) investigate the exact location of the coronal deformity in HV; (3) investigate the relationship between the severity of deformity on the transverse and coronal planes as well as the correlation between deformity severity and foot function/symptoms in HV. Age-matched females with and without HV were recruited at the Foot and Ankle Clinic of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Computed tomography was conducted for all subjects with additional weight-bearing dorsal-plantar X-ray examination for HV subjects. Demographic information of all subjects was recorded, with symptoms and functions related to HV evaluated. The intra-class correlation was used to explore the relationship between deformities on different planes and the deformity severity and functional outcomes, respectively. An Independent t-test was used to compare joint rotation and bone torsion degrees. TMT joint rotation is significantly correlated with foot function. HV patients had more TMT joint rotation but not MT torsion compared to normal controls. No relationship was found between the coronal rotation and the 1,2-intermetatarsal angle (IMA) or Hallux valgus angle (HVA) on the transverse plane. Our results indicate that coronal deformities in HV may originate from TMT joint rotation. In addition, the severity of the TMT joint coronal rotation correlates with worse foot function; thus, multi-plane assessment and examination will be necessary for more precise surgical correction.
All Author(s) ListWei R.X., Ko V.M.c., Chui E.C.s., Fu B.S.c., Hung V.W.y., Yung P.S.h., Ling S.K.k.
Journal nameScientific Reports
Year2023
Month2
Volume Number13
Issue Number1
PublisherNature Research
Article number1815
ISSN2045-2322
eISSN2045-2322
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom

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