Comparative short-term effectiveness of non-surgical treatments for insertional Achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
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AbstractBackground: The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy has risen over the past decades. Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is characterised by tissue degeneration of the Achilles tendon from its insertion in the calcaneus to up to 2 cm proximally. This clinical condition is accompanied by pain, loss of function and diminished exercise tolerance. Numerous conservative treatment modalities are available to participants with insertional Achilles tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, laser therapy, cryotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, and orthotics. Eccentric exercise and extracorporeal shockwave therapy may reduce pain in participants with non-calcified insertional Achilles tendinopathy. However, no specific treatment is recommended over another due to the low methodological quality of trials. Given the lack of standard or preferred non-surgical treatment and the potential risks of surgical treatment, there is an imminent need to reassess different non-surgical treatments based on the newest evidence. Thus, this systematic review aims to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the various non-surgical treatments for insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Methods: AMED EBSCOhost, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, PEDro, PubMed, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched from 1992 to 14th October 2022, randomised controlled trials of adults with insertional Achilles tendinopathy investigating non-surgical treatments compared with each other or no treatment, placebo/sham control. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted the data. Random effects of network meta-analysis immediately after treatments were used to report comparative treatment effects. The surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities was calculated to assess the relative ranking of treatments. Results: Nine trials (total n = 464 participants) were included. This review recommended the combination of eccentric exercise and soft tissue therapy to manage insertional Achilles tendinopathy. With the highest SUCRA values of 84.8, and the best mean rank of 1.9, Eccentric exercise plus soft tissue treatment ranked as the most effective treatment for short-term pain. Conclusions: This is the first NMA of non-surgical treatment focusing on short-term pain control for IAT which eccentric exercise plus soft-tissue therapy was found to be the most effective treatment combination. However, the overall confidence in non-surgical treatments from all included trials was very low. No recommendation of the best treatment option can be made from this review.
All Author(s) ListKo V.M.C., Cao M., Qiu J., Fong I.C.K., Fu S.C., Yung P.S.H., Ling S.K.K.
Journal nameBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Year2023
Month2
Volume Number24
Issue Number1
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd
Article number102
ISSN1471-2474
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsInsertional Achilles tendinopathy, Non-surgical treatments, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation

Last updated on 2024-09-04 at 00:10