Testosterone level in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and related metabolic effects: A review of current evidence
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AbstractA significant proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a low testosterone level relative to reference ranges based on healthy young men. Only a small number of these patients suffer from classical hypogonadism as a result of recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis pathology. The cut-off value of the serum testosterone level in men without obvious hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis pathology is controversial. It is unclear to what extent a low serum testosterone level causally leads to type 2 diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome. From a theoretical standpoint, there can be complex interactions among the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, body composition and insulin resistance, which can be further influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to give rise to metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, and low-grade inflammation to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although a low serum testosterone level frequently coexists with cardiometabolic risk factors and might serve as a biomarker, more studies are required to clarify the causal, mediating or modifying roles of low serum testosterone level in the development of adverse clinical outcomes.
All Author(s) ListCheung K.K.T., Luk A.O.Y., So W.Y., Ma R.C.W., Kong A.P.S., Chow F.C.C., Chan J.C.N.
Journal nameJournal of Diabetes Investigation
Volume Number6
Issue Number2
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Place of PublicationAustralia
Pages112 - 123
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsMetabolic syndrome, Testosterone, Type 2 diabetes

Last updated on 2021-13-01 at 01:15