Real-time analysis of the activities of GnRH and GnRH analogs in alpha T3-1 cells by the cytosensor microphysiometer
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AbstractGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via the GnRH receptor, elicited rapid extracellular acidification responses in mouse gonadotrope-derived alpha T3-1 cells as measured by the Cytosensor microphysiometer, which indirectly monitors cellular metabolic rates. GnRH increased the extracellular acidification rate of the cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 1.81 +/- 0.24 nM). The GnRH-stimulated acidification rate could be attenuated by protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulation, extracellular Ca2+ depletion, and the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) blocker nifedipine, indicating that the acidification response is activated by both Ca2+ and PKC-mediated pathways. Upon continuous exposure to 100 nM GnRH or periodic stimulation by 10 nM GnRH at 40 min intervals, homologous desensitization was more pronounced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that desensitization of GnRH activity may be mediated via depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. We have also compared the potency of eight GnRH analogs on alpha T3-1 cells. No acidification response was detected for GnRH free acid, consistent with the idea that the C-terminal amide is a critical structural determinant for GnRH activity. Replacement of Gly-NH2 at the C-terminus by N-ethylamide dramatically reduced the EC50 value, suggesting that substitution of the Gly-NH2 moiety by N-ethylamide increases the potency of Cn RH analogs. Substitution of Gly at position 6 by D-Trp significantly reduced the EC50 value, whereas D-Lys at the same position slightly increased the EC50 value, implying that either an aromatic amino acid or a non-basic amino acid at position 6 may be essential for potent GnRH agonists. In summary, our results demonstrate that the Cytosensor microphysiometer can be used to evaluate the actions of GnRH and GnRH analogs in alpha T3-1 cells in a real-time and noninvasive manner. This silicon-based microphysiometric system should provide new information on the structure-function studies of GnRH and is an invaluable tool for the screening of new GnRH agonists and antagonists in the future. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
All Author(s) ListNg SSM, Yu KL, Yung WH, Chow BKC
Journal nameJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Volume Number80
Issue Number3
Pages304 - 312
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordsdesensitization; extracellular acidification rate; GnRH; GnRH analogs; GnRH receptor
Web of Science Subject CategoriesBiochemistry & Molecular Biology; BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY; Cell Biology; CELL BIOLOGY

Last updated on 2021-26-02 at 01:38