Relationship Between Passive Smoking Exposure and Urinary Heavy Metals and Lung Functions in Preschool Children
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AbstractEnvironmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a risk factor for asthma in school-age children, but there is limited data of ETS exposure on respiratory health in preschool children. This study investigated the relationship between ETS, lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) exposures and asthma symptoms and spirometric indices in Chinese preschoolers. Preschool children from 30 nurseries and kindergartens performed spirometry with incentives of animation programs, and their urinary cotinine, Pb and Cd concentrations were measured by immunoassay and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. Two thousand seven hundred sixty-three preschoolers participated, and 1,505 and 893 provided valid spirometric data and urine samples, respectively. Current domestic smoking was reported in 37.5% of children, but only 95 (10.6%) had high urinary cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (30ng/mg). Pb was measurable in 3.9% of samples, whereas 406 (45.5%) children had high Cd. Reported ETS exposure was not associated with any spirometric index, whereas cotinine-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 0.5-sec (=-0.093, P=0.003), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of expiration (=-0.138, P=0.002) and peak expiratory flow (=-0.106, P=0.002). Cd exposure was not associated with reported respiratory symptom or spirometric indices. This community study shows that ETS exposure defined by urinary cotinine is a strong risk factor for lung function impairment measured by spirometry in Chinese preschool children. Urinary cotinine is more reliable than questionnaire for assessing ETS exposure in young children. Although high urinary Cd is common in Hong Kong preschoolers, such biomarker is not associated with any clinical or spirometric outcome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:1089-1097. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
All Author(s) ListLeung TF, Chan IHS, Liu TC, Lam CWK, Wong GWK
Journal namePediatric Pulmonology
Year2013
Month11
Day1
Volume Number48
Issue Number11
PublisherWILEY-BLACKWELL
Pages1089 - 1097
ISSN8755-6863
eISSN1099-0496
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordscadmium; environmental tobacco smoke; lead; preschooler; spirometry
Web of Science Subject CategoriesPediatrics; PEDIATRICS; Respiratory System; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Last updated on 2020-21-09 at 00:56