Glycosylated zinc(II) phthalocyanines as efficient photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy. Synthesis, photophysical properties and in vitro photodynamic activity
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AbstractTreatment of 3- or 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 1,2: 5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose or 1,2: 3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranose in the presence of K(2)CO(3) gave the corresponding glycosubstituted phthalonitriles. These precursors underwent self-cyclisation, or mixed-cyclisation with the unsubstituted phthalonitrile, to afford the tetra- or mono-glycosylated zinc(II) phthalocyanines, respectively. As shown by absorption spectroscopy, these compounds were not significantly aggregated in organic solvents, giving a weak to moderate fluorescence emission. Upon irradiation these compounds could sensitise the formation of singlet oxygen in DMF, with quantum yields in the range of 0.40-0.66. The in vitro photodynamic activities of these compounds against HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma and HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were also studied. The mono-glycosylated phthalocyanines exhibited significantly higher photocytotoxicity compared with the tetra-alpha-glycosylated analogues, having IC(50) values down to 0.9 mu M. The tetra-beta-glycosylated counterparts were essentially inactive. The lower photocytotoxicities of the tetra- glycosylated phthalocyanines are in line with their lower cellular uptake and/or higher aggregation tendency as reflected by weaker intracellular fluorescence, and lower efficiency at generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. For the mono-glycosylated phthalocyanines, the higher uptake can be attributed to their hydrophilic saccharide units, which increase the amphiphilicity of the macrocycles.
All Author(s) ListChoi CF, Huang JD, Lo PC, Fong WP, Ng DKP
Journal nameOrganic and Biomolecular Chemistry
Volume Number6
Issue Number12
Pages2173 - 2181
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Web of Science Subject CategoriesChemistry; Chemistry, Organic; CHEMISTRY, ORGANIC

Last updated on 2020-20-10 at 02:13