Acute pancreatitis - Animal models and recent advances in basic research
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AbstractAcute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by edema, acinar cell necrosis, hemorrhage, and severe inflammation of the pancreas. Patients with AP present with elevated blood and urine levels of pancreatic digestive enzymes, such as amylase and lipase. Severe AP may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, which account for the high mortality rate of AP. Although most (> 80%) cases of AP are associated with gallstones and alcoholism, some are idiopathic. Although the pathogenesis of AP has not yet been elucidated, a common feature is the premature activation of trypsinogen within pancreatic tissues, which triggers autodigestion of the gland. Recent advances in basic research suggest that etiologic factors including cyclooxygenase-2, substance P, and angiotensin 11 may have novel roles in this disease. Basic research data obtained thus far have been based on animal models of AP ranging from mild edematous pancreatitis to severe necrotizing pancreatitis. In view of this, an adequate selection of experimental animal models is of paramount importance. Notwithstanding these animal models, it should be emphasized that none of these models mimic the clinical situation where varying degrees of severity usually occur. In this review, commonly used animal models of AP will be critically evaluated. A discussion of recent advances in our knowledge about AP risk factors is also included.
All Author(s) ListChan YC, Leung PS
Journal namePancreas
Volume Number34
Issue Number1
Pages1 - 14
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordsacute pancreatitis; angiotensin II; cacrulein; cyclooxygenase; pancreas; substance P
Web of Science Subject CategoriesGastroenterology & Hepatology; GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY

Last updated on 2020-27-05 at 03:26