Silencing of hypoxia-inducible tumor suppressor lysyl oxidase gene by promoter methylation activates carbonic anhydrase IX in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
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摘要Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an oxidative enzyme known to initiate the cross-linking of collagens and elastin, and suggested recently as a tumor suppressor for several tumor types including lung, pancreatic and gastric cancers. Previously we showed that LOX is strongly induced upon hypoxia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines CNE2 and HONE1 but only slightly in HK1 and not in C666-1. Here, we further studied the regulatory mechanism and functions of LOX in NPC. LOX is widely expressed in human normal tissues with variations in expression levels. LOX was expressed in most NPC cell lines except for C666-1, while HK1 and FaDu (laryngeal cancer) only expressed low level of LOX. Methylation analysis showed that the LOX promoter was methylated in C666-1 and partially methylated in HK1. After demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, LOX expression was reactivated along with increased unmethylated alleles. LOX promoter methylation was detected in 42/49 (85.7%) of NPC primary tumors but only 3/16 (18.75%) of nose swab samples from NPC patients. LOX overexpression reduced the clonogenicity and cell growth of NPC cells, and also inhibited the migration and invasion of the NPC cells. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) mRNA level was obviously decreased in HK1 cells after transfection with LOX. The elevation of CA9 protein upon hypoxia was inhibited in LOX-transfected HK1 cells. The protein levels of an apoptosis marker cPARP were increased in LOX-transfected HK1 cells upon hypoxia treatment. Our data showed that silencing or down-regulation of LOX in NPC was due to its promoter methylation and LOX acts as a tumor suppressor in NPC. LOX silencing would facilitate NPC cells to escape from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and maintains a malignant and metastatic phenotype.
著者Sung FL, Cui Y, Hui EP, Li LL, Loh TKS, Tao Q, Chan ATC
期刊名稱American Journal of Cancer Research
出版年份2014
月份1
日期1
卷號4
期次6
出版社e-Century Publishing
頁次789 - 800
國際標準期刊號2156-6976
語言英式英語
關鍵詞apoptosis; carbonic anhydrase IX; epigenetics; growth inhibition; hypoxia; Lysyl oxidase; metastasis; nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Web of Science 學科類別Oncology

上次更新時間 2020-23-11 於 00:13