The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and retinal nerve fiber/ganglion cell layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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AbstractPurpose: Retinal nerve fiber/ganglion cell layer (RNFL/GCL) thickness measured using optical coherence tomography has been proposed as an ocular biomarker for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but findings varied in different studies. This study aims to determine the association between RNFL/GCL thickness and ADHD in children by systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We performed a literature search in Embase, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for relevant articles published up to February 29, 2020. All studies with original data comparing RNFL/GCL thickness in ADHD and healthy children were included. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess bias risk and quality of evidence. Pooled estimates of the differences in thickness of RNFL or GCL between ADHD and healthy subjects were generated using meta-analysis with a random-effect model due to significant inter-study heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. Results: We identified four eligible studies involving a total of 164 ADHD and 150 control subjects. Meta-analysis revealed that ADHD in children was associated with a reduction in global RNFL thickness (SMD, − 0.23; 95% CI − 0.46, − 0.01; p = 0.04). The global GCL thickness was examined in two studies with 89 ADHD and 75 control subjects, but the pooled difference in global GCL thickness between ADHD children and controls was not statistically significant (SMD, − 0.34; 95% CI − 1.25, 0.58; p = 0.47). Conclusion: Existing evidence suggests a possible association between ADHD and RNFL thinning in children. In view of the limited number of reports, further studies in large cohorts should be warranted.
All Author(s) ListLi S.L., Kam K.W., Chee A.S.H., Zhang X.J., Chen L.J., Yip W.W.K., Tham C.C., Young A.L., Wong I.C.K., Ip P., Yam J.C.
Journal nameInternational Ophthalmology
Year2021
Month9
Volume Number41
Issue Number9
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Pages3211 - 3221
ISSN0165-5701
eISSN1573-2630
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Meta-analysis, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Optical coherence tomography, Retinal nerve fiber thickness

Last updated on 2021-23-11 at 23:55