A GLP-1 analog lowers ER stress and enhances protein folding to ameliorate homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction
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AbstractHyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and increases mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. HHcy induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress to impair endothelial function. The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analog exendin-4 attenuates endothelial ER stress, but the detailed vasoprotective mechanism remains elusive. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of exendin-4 against HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Exendin-4 pretreatment reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations in C57BL/6 mouse aortae ex vivo. Four weeks subcutaneous injection of exendin-4 restored the impaired endothelial function in both aortae and mesenteric arteries isolated from mice with diet-induced HHcy. Exendin-4 treatment lowered superoxide anion accumulation in the mouse aortae both ex vivo and in vivo. Exendin-4 decreased the expression of ER stress markers (e.g., ATF4, spliced XBP1, and phosphorylated eIF2α) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and this change was reversed by cotreatment with compound C (CC) (AMPK inhibitor). Exendin-4 induced phosphorylation of AMPK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in HUVECs and arteries. Exendin-4 increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERO1α), an important ER chaperone in endothelial cells, and this effect was mediated by AMPK activation. Experiments using siRNA-mediated knockdown or adenoviral overexpression revealed that ERO1α mediated the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on ER stress and superoxide anion production, thus ameliorating HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. The present results demonstrate that exendin-4 reduces HHcy-induced ER stress and improves endothelial function through AMPK-dependent ERO1α upregulation in endothelial cells and arteries. AMPK activation promotes the protein folding machinery in endothelial cells to suppress ER stress.
Acceptance Date15/10/2020
All Author(s) ListChak Kwong Cheng, Jiang-Yun Luo, Chi Wai Lau, William Chi-shing Cho, Chi Fai Ng, Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Xiao Yu Tian, Yu Huang
Journal nameActa Pharmacologica Sinica
Detailed descriptionArticle. Co-corresponding authors: TIAN Xiaoyu and HUANG Yu
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsAMPK, ER chaperone, ER stress, GLP-1 analog, endothelial dysfunction, exendin-4, homocysteine, oxidative stress

Last updated on 2021-22-06 at 23:57