A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial on combining mind-body physical exercise, cognitive training, and nurse-led risk factor modification to reduce cognitive decline among older adults with mild cognitive impairment in primary care
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AbstractObjectives
To examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of (1) combining cognitive training, mind-body physical exercise, and nurse-led risk factor modification (CPR), (2) nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM), and (3) health advice (HA) on reducing cognitive decline among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods
It was a 3-arm open-labeled pilot randomized controlled trial in the primary care setting in Hong Kong. Nineteen older adults with MCI were randomized to either CPR (n = 6), RFM (n = 7), or HA (n = 6) for 6 months. The primary outcome was the feasibility of the study. Secondary outcomes included the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Hong Kong version (HK-MoCA), the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), quality of life, depression, anxiety, physical activity, health service utilization, and diet.

Results
Nineteen out the 98 potential patients were recruited, with a recruitment rate of 19% (95% CI [12–29]%, P = 0.243). The adherence rate of risk factor modification was 89% (95% CI [65–98]%, P = 0.139) for CPR group and 86% (95% CI [63–96]%, P = 0.182) for RFM group. In the CPR group, 53% (95% CI [36–70]%, P = 0.038) of the Tai Chi exercise sessions and 54% (95% CI [37–71]%, P = 0.051) of cognitive sessions were completed. The overall dropout rate was 11% (95% CI [2–34]%, P = 0.456). Significant within group changes were observed in HK-MoCA in RFM (4.50 ± 2.59, P = 0.008), cost of health service utilization in CPR (−4000, quartiles: −6800 to −200, P = 0.043), fish and seafood in HA (−1.10 ± 1.02, P = 0.047), and sugar in HA (2.69 ± 1.80, P = 0.015). Group × time interactions were noted on HK-MoCA favoring the RFM group (P = 0.000), DAD score favoring CPR group (P = 0.027), GAS-20 favoring CPR group (P = 0.026), number of servings of fish and seafood (P = 0.004), and sugar (P < 0.001) ate per day.

Conclusions
In this pilot study, RFM and the multi-domain approach CPR were feasible and had preliminary beneficial effects in older adults with MCI in primary care setting in Hong Kong.
Acceptance Date11/08/2020
All Author(s) ListZijun Xu, Dexing Zhang, Allen T.C. Lee, Regina W.S. Sit, Carmen Wong, Eric K.P. Lee, Benjamin H.K. Yip, Jennifer Y.S. Tiu, Linda C.W. Lam, Samuel Y.S. Wong
Journal namePeerJ
Year2020
Month9
Volume Number8
PublisherPeerJ
Article numbere9845
ISSN2167-8359
LanguagesEnglish-United States

Last updated on 2021-13-06 at 00:56