Multiplicative effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on academic performance: A longitudinal study of Chinese students
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AbstractObjective For Chinese students, learning is seen as their duty and obligation to the society and their parents. Thus, in contrast to the Western students, the effects of extrinsic motivation on academic performance may not necessarily be always negative. The present study examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as their multiplicative effect among Chinese students. Method A total of 13,799 students in China were followed longitudinally in three waves (Grade 10, beginning of school year, midyear, and end-of-year; 5-month interval each). The main and multiplicative effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations were used to predict academic growth in a latent growth model. Results The multiplicative effect between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations showed that extrinsic motivation was detrimental to academic performance for students with high intrinsic motivation. For students with low intrinsic motivation, however, the extrinsic motivation helped to improve academic performance. Worth noting, intrinsic motivation also had a moderate positive effect on academic performance. Conclusions For Chinese learners, interest is not the only key motive to learn. Extrinsic reasons could facilitate students' learning when they are not interested in the subject. Extrinsic motivation harms only for highly intrinsically motivated students.
All Author(s) ListLiu Y, Hau KT, Liu HY, Wu J, Wang XF, Zheng X
Journal nameJournal of Personality
Year2020
Month6
Volume Number88
Issue Number3
PublisherWILEY
Pages584 - 595
ISSN0022-3506
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
KeywordsChinese culture, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, multiplicative effect
Web of Science Subject CategoriesPsychology, Social;Psychology

Last updated on 2021-24-01 at 00:39