Honokiol, Magnolol and Their Combination Ameliorate Cognitive Impairments in TgCRND8 Transgenic Mice via Modulating Amyloid Pathology, Neuroinflammation and Synaptic Dysfunction
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AbstractMagnolol (MN) and honokiol (HN) are two ligands isolated from Magnolia officinalis, and can cross the blood-brain barrier. MN and HN have been reported to improve the memory and learning deficits in several animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the anti-AD action mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cognitive deficits improving effects of MN and HN, and their combination in TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model. Male and female TgCRND8 mice were administered with HN (20 mg/kg), MN (20 mg/kg) or their combination (both 20 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 3 months, followed by assessing the spatial learning and memory functions with Radial Arm Maze test and Novel Object Recognition Test. Brain tissues were used to determine the changes in amyloid pathology, neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction using immunofluorescence, western blot and ELISA kits. Our results revealed that HN (20 mg/kg), MN (20 mg/kg) or their combination (both 20 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice. In addition, HN (20 mg/kg), MN (20 mg/kg) or their combination (both 20 mg/kg) markedly reduced the levels of Aβ40, Aβ42 and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and modulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and phosphorylation. HN, MN or their combination were also found to increase the protein expressions of postsynaptic density protein 93 (PSD93), PSD95, synapsin I (SYN1). Immunofluorescence showed that HN, MN or their combination reduced the Aβ deposition, as well as suppressed the activation of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of TgCRND8 mice. Furthermore, HN, MN or their combination was able to enhance the ratio of p-GSK-3β (Ser9)/GSK-3β and p-Akt (Ser473)/Akt in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. The results demonstrate that HN, MN and their combination possess anti-AD effects as evidenced by ameliorating cognitive impairment, and the underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of Aβ generation and deposition, amelioration of synaptic dysfunction and neuroinflammation through modulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in TgCRND8 transgenic mice. MN and HN are believed to have good potential for further development into therapeutic agents for AD treatment.

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the General Research Fund from Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (project no. 14110814) and The Chinese University of Hong Kong Direct Grant (project no. 2017.076).
All Author(s) ListZhi-Xiu Lin, Yan-Fang Xian, Chang Qu, Siu-Po Ip
Name of Conference3rd World Congress on Pharmacology and Clinical Trials
Start Date of Conference19/08/2019
End Date of Conference20/08/2019
Place of ConferenceKuala Lumpur
Country/Region of ConferenceMalaysia
Year2019
Month8
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom

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