Perioperative prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in placenta previa: a randomized controlled trial
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AbstractBackground Placenta previa remains one of the major causes of massive postpartum hemorrhage and maternal mortality worldwide. Objective To determine whether internal iliac artery balloon occlusion during cesarean delivery for placenta previa could reduce postpartum hemorrhage and other maternal complications. Study Design This was a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at a tertiary university obstetric unit in Hong Kong. Pregnant women who were diagnosed to have placenta previa at 34 weeks (defined as lower placenta edge within 2 cm from the internal os) and required cesarean delivery were invited to participate. Eligible pregnant women were randomized into internal iliac artery balloon occlusion (Occlusion) group or standard management (Control) group. Those randomized to the Occlusion group had internal iliac artery balloon catheter placement performed before cesarean delivery and then balloon inflation after delivery of the baby. The primary outcome was the reduction of postpartum hemorrhage in those with internal iliac artery balloon occlusion. Secondary outcome measures included hemoglobin drop after delivery; amount of blood product transfusion; incidence of hysterectomy; maternal complications including renal failure, ischemic liver, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and adult respiratory distress syndrome; length of stay in hospital; admission to intensive care unit; and maternal death. Results Between May 2016 and September 2018, 40 women were randomized (20 in each group). Demographic and obstetric characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. In the Occlusion group, 3 women did not receive the scheduled procedure, as it was preceded by antepartum hemorrhage that required emergency cesarean delivery, and 1 woman had repeated scan at 36 weeks showing the placental edge was slightly more than 2 cm from the internal os. Intention-to-treat analysis found no significant differences between the Occlusion and the Control groups regarding to the median intraoperative blood loss (1451 [1024–2388] mL vs 1454 [888–2300] mL; P = .945), the median length of surgery (49 [30–62] min vs 37 [30–51] min; P = .204), or the need for blood transfusion during operation (57.9% vs 50.0%; P = .621). None of the patients had rebleeding after operation, complication related to internal iliac artery procedure, or any other maternal complications. Reanalyzing the data using on-treatment approach showed the same results. Conclusion The use of prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in placenta previa patients undergoing cesarean delivery did not reduce postpartum hemorrhage or have any effect on maternal or neonatal morbidity.
Acceptance Date10/01/2020
All Author(s) ListYu Simon Chun Ho, Cheng Yvonne Kwun Yue, Tse Wing Ting, Sahota Daljit Singh, Chung Man Yan, Wong Simon Sin Man, Chan Oi Ka, Leung Tak Yeung
Journal nameAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Year2020
Month7
Volume Number223
Issue Number1
PublisherElsevier
Pages117.e1 - 117.e13
ISSN0002-9378
LanguagesEnglish-United Kingdom
Keywordscesarean, hysterectomy, internal artery iliac balloon, maternal mortality, placenta accreta spectrum, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage

Last updated on 2020-27-10 at 00:09