漢帝國緣邊與內部的「游離群體」―—兼論秦漢帝國天下觀的想像與現實 (A preliminary survey of the free-floating elements in early imperial China)
Publication in refereed journal

香港中文大學研究人員
替代計量分析
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其它資訊
摘要秦漢時期,中華帝國的出現不僅確立了帝國對外的地理界限,更劃分了華夏與非華夏之間的族群邊界,對此後中國歷史與文化的發展影響深遠。然而,帝國的地理與想像的邊界並非固定不變,也不是截然二分的,而是一直處於盈縮之間。與此同時,帝國的邊界上也長期存在著文化與政治認同游移不定的群體——本文稱之為「游離群體」。帝國緣邊「游離群體」因為地域文化與現實政治因素的影響而游離於帝國統治之外,甚至轉而與外敵合作,對帝國的安全構成威脅。在帝國建立、擴張與消亡的過程中,往往可以看到緣邊「游離群體」的身影。另一方面,即使在帝國內地也存在著各式「游離群體」,流動於邊境地區或其他帝國力量薄弱的環節之間。他們的存在也對漢代社會的穩定有著不少的影響。
本文作為研究早期中華帝國之「游離群體」的一個初步嘗試,希望勾稽帝國邊疆與內地的「游離群體」的一些面相,以探討他們的存在對帝國歷史發展的影響。此外,亦希望透過對「游離群體」的存在以思考秦漢時期的帝國與天下觀念。「游離群體」來源龐雜,本文只就地理範圍而言,籠統地區分之為緣邊與內地兩類。其實緣邊與內地之間也非斷然不通。內地的「游離群體」如流民和「客」往往可以流移至邊地,並成為「亡人」逃逸出塞,甚至參與或成為緣邊「游離群體」的一份子。對這些「游離群體」的研究,可以有助了解帝國對境內流動人口的管理方法與對於緣邊潛在不安定因素的應對。同時,「游離群體」的存在,特別是其構成「邊緣社會」對帝國管治的抗拒,也反映了帝國在緣邊控制上的力量消長,並顯示了帝國對外的疆界限制,而非理想中之天下一統或王者無外。另一方面,帝國內地的「游離群體」之存在及移動,也揭示了在帝國安土重遷之理想下,仍然有著因為各種原因而浮動、流移不定的群眾,既為地方社會帶來活力,也蘊藏著不穩的因素。

This article is a preliminary survey of the activities of free-floating elements, borrowing the concept of “free-floating resources” from the sociologist S.N. Eisenstadt, during the period of Han Empire (206 B.C. to A.D. 220) and their impacts on the Han politics and society. The term free-floating elements in this study refers to the communities and individuals that scattering along the borders of the Han Empire or roaming within its inland who always sought to distance from direct state control. A rough distinction can be made between two types of free-floating elements, the first was those staying along the frontiers between the empire and the non-Han polities or peoples and subsequently forged their own regional cultures and identities as well as political agenda that against the imperial center; they usually gathered in the form of armed frontier communities. Unlike the first group, the second usually left their home and moved around the interior of the empire on individual base or in wandering band to look for chance of earning a living. Although the two groups were different from geographical distribution, scale of community, and immediate purposes of staying away from the state orbit, they were both violating and challenging the general principles of state control of personal mobility and political obedience. A study on the free-floating elements during the Han times and their relationship with the state, therefore giving us a glimpse of the limits of state control over its subjects beneath the façade of unified empire in early imperial China.
著者Wicky W. K. Tse
期刊名稱동서인문 = Journal of East-West Humanities
出版年份2019
卷號12
頁次45 - 65
語言繁體中文

上次更新時間 2020-12-07 於 00:52