Associations of household environmental tobacco smoke exposure with respiratory symptoms and utilisation of medical services in healthy young children in Hong Kong
Publication in refereed journal


Young children are especially vulnerable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. This study was carried out to determine whether household ETS exposure was associated with medical service utilisation and respiratory symptoms among Hong Kong healthy children in their first eighteen months of age.

A secondary analysis was done on the data obtained from our previous cross-sectional territory-wide pneumococcal carriage surveillance study in Hong Kong in year 2013-2014. All measures were reported by caregiver. Univariable and multivariable analyses were done to examine the associations between ETS exposure and outcome measures. Covariates included children’s sex, age, body mass index z score, history of breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, birthweight, maternal age, living region, overcrowding of living area, household income, child care attendance and presence of siblings. Additional adjustment for season and households’ respiratory symptoms were made for association exploration between ETS and children’s respiratory symptoms.

1541 children (mean age: 11.2 ± 6.4 months, male: 50.7%) were included in this analysis. Current household ETS exposure (AOR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.66, p=0.050) and postnatal maternal smoking (AOR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.06-4.64, p=0.035) were independently and significantly associated with all-cause doctor consultation in the past 3 months. Children living with more than one household smoker were more likely to have all-cause doctor consultation compared with non-exposed ones (AOR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.04-2.77, P=0.028). Postnatal maternal smoking was associated with all-cause hospitalisation in the past 3 months (AOR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.05-5.86, p=0.039). Children living in a household, where the daily total cigarette consumption by household smoker(s) was more than 20, were more likely to have respiratory symptoms compared with non-exposed children (AOR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.12-3.52, p=0.016).

Household ETS exposure in young children was associated with all-cause outpatient or inpatient medical service utilisation and respiratory symptoms. The associations were potentially dose-dependent.
著者Siyu Dai, Kate Ching Ching Chan
期刊名稱Tobacco Induced Diseases
出版社European Publishing

上次更新時間 2020-26-11 於 23:48