The Emergence of a Temple-Centric Society (以廟宇為中心之社會的形成)
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AbstractWhile it is now agreed that lineage China, in which villages were organized around ancestor halls, did not really become a prominent part of the landscape, even in South China, before the mid-Ming, far less attention has been paid to the fact these same villages—as well as market towns and county seats—were from the Song on increasingly organized as territory around temples of the popular religion, as opposed to earth god altars or Buddhist and Daoist monasteries. Starting in the Northern Wei, when the state first decreed the creation of such monasteries in every county, monasteries had been the prime religious institutions receiving state funds. But with the takeoff of title granting to popular local gods from the eleventh century on, while monasteries continued to enjoy state support, they increasingly could not compete with the god temples of popular religion. One result was that religious festivals, both in villages and in market towns, came to be organized around the local temples, and involve parades of the gods throughout the territory they protected and policed. Pilgrimages to selected temples, or circulation of gods among networks of villages, also came to be widespread. Another result was the rise to prominence of local gods served by spirit-mediums and of local Buddhists and Daoists who came to be worshiped pretty much like any other local god (Dingguang, Chen Jinggu). Closely linked to these changes are the increasing prominence of popular forms of Buddhism (Pu’an, Yujia, Lingshan) and Daoism (the fashi) that incorporated local gods and even found ways to work directly with spirit-mediums.

雖然現在普遍認為,即便在中國南方,圍繞祖先祠堂而建立的鄉村,是在明代中葉後才真正成為社會圖景的顯著部分,但人們遠未注意到的是,此前這些鄉村,以及集鎮和縣城,從宋朝開始漸漸都圍繞諸多民間宗教廟宇而建立,或者說已經不像過去圍繞社壇,或佛寺、道觀而建立。北魏以來,種種寺院、道觀隨着國家法令的頒布而在每一個縣建成,而國家對宗教機構的資助也主要通過佛寺、道觀來實行。然而,從十一世紀以來,隨着民間的地方性神祇被授予各種封號,佛寺、道觀雖然繼續得到國家資助,卻漸漸地競爭不過民間宗教的各種神廟。一個結果是,鄉村和集鎮的宗教節日開始圍繞地方神廟宇來組織,並且當人們抬着神像遊行的時候所擡的也是能保一方平安的地方神祇;此外,人們往往會到某些選定的廟宇進香,鄉村之間通常也會舉辦遊神活動。另一個結果是,由諸多靈媒為其服務的地方神祇和本地和尚、道士(定光、陳靖姑)幾乎像其他地方神祇一樣受人膜拜。與這些變化密切相關的是,各種民間化的佛教形式(普安、瑜伽、靈山)和道教形式(法師)漸漸取得顯赫地位,而且這些佛、道形式可以把各種地方神祇兼併,甚至也可以找到與靈媒直接合作的辦法。
All Author(s) ListLAGERWEY John
Journal nameJournal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore = 民俗曲藝
Year2019
Month9
Issue Number205
PublisherShih Ho-cheng Folk Culture Foundation
Place of PublicationTaiwan
Pages29 - 102
LanguagesEnglish-United States
Keywordstemple, popular religion, god titles, popular Daoism, local and regional gods

Last updated on 2020-22-05 at 12:50