Simvastatin Possesses Antitumor and Differentiation‐Promoting Properties that Affect Stromal Cells in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
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AbstractGiant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive destructive bone lesion. The management of pulmonary metastasis and local recurrence after the surgical treatment of GCTB remains a challenge. Pathologically, stromal cells in GCTB are known as primary neoplastic cells and are recognized as incompletely differentiated preosteoblasts. Therefore, inducing GCTB stromal cells to differentiate into cells with a mature osteoblastic phenotype may stop tumor growth and recurrence. In this study, we aimed to investigate how simvastatin, a clinically approved and commonly used statin that has been known to promote the maturation of cells of the osteogenic lineage, affects GCTB stromal cells. We found that simvastatin effectively inhibited cell viability by suppressing proliferation and by inducing apoptosis in GCTB stromal cells. Moreover, simvastatin treatment upregulated the expression of genes related to osteogenic maturation, such as runt‐related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN), and increased the mineralization of the extracellular matrix in GCTB stromal cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to discover that the vitamin D receptor pathway was involved in the simvastatin‐induced osteogenic differentiation of GCTB stromal cells by upregulating the 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism. Taken together, this in vitro study demonstrates the antitumor and differentiation‐promoting effects of simvastatin on GCTB stromal cells and suggests the possibility of using simvastatin as an adjuvant therapy for GCTB. These findings support further clinical investigation of the efficacy of using simvastatin as an adjuvant therapy for GCTB to reduce recurrence and distant metastasis after surgical treatment.
Acceptance Date31/08/2019
All Author(s) ListCarol PY Lau, Cathy SH Fung, Kwok Chuen Wong, Yu‐Hsuan Wang, Lin Huang, Stephen KW Tsui, Oscar K Lee, Shekhar Madhukar Kumta
Journal nameJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Year2020
Month2
Volume Number38
Issue Number2
PublisherWiley
Place of PublicationUS
Pages297 - 310
ISSN0736-0266
eISSN1554-527X
LanguagesEnglish-United States
KeywordsCancer / Tumors, Therapeutics

Last updated on 2020-05-08 at 00:47