Extracellular Histones Induced Eryptotic Death in Human Erythrocytes
Publication in refereed journal


摘要Background/Aims: Circulating or extracellular histones (EHs) in the bloodstream act as a damage-associated-molecular-pattern (DAMP) agent that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as sepsis and sterile inflammation. To date, not much information is available to describe the mechanistic relationship between human erythrocytes and the cytotoxicity of EHs, the protein members from a highly conserved histone family across species. The present study explored this key question with a hypothesis that EHs induce eryptosis. Methods: Freshly isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy donors were treated with EHs or agents for positive controls in a physiological buffer for 3 or 24 h. After treatments, flow cytometry was employed to quantify surface phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure from annexin-V-RFP binding, cell shrinkage from flow cytometric forward scatter (FSC) analysis, Ca2+ rise by fluo-4, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by H2DCFDA, and caspase-3 activation by FAM-DEVD-FMK measurement. Hemolysis and membarne permeabilization were estimated respectively from hemoglobin release into supernatant and calcein leakage from RBC ghosts. Results: With positive controls for validation, EHs in the pathophsyiological range were found to accumulate annexin-V binding on cell surface, decrease FSC, upregulate ROS production, elevate Ca2+ influx and increase caspase-3 activity in a 3-h incubation. Of note, no RBC hemolysis and no calcein release from ghosts were obtained after EHs treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, external Ca2+ was not a prerequisite for the EHs-mediated ROS production and PS externalization. Also, the eryptotic hallmarks in the apoptotic RBCs were partially blocked by heparin and antibody (Ab) against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Conclusion: EHs act as a DAMP agent in the human RBCs that induces eryptosis. The cytotoxic effect is rapid as the hallmarks of eryptosis such as cell shrinkage, surface PS exposure, [Ca2+]i rise, ROS production and caspase-3 activation can be seen 3 h after treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The EHs’ cytotoxic effects could be blocked by heparin and the Ab against TLR2.
著者Ka Wing YEUNG, Pui Man LAU, Hing Lun TSANG, Ho Pui HO, Yiu Wa KWAN, Siu Kai KONG
期刊名稱Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
頁次229 - 241
關鍵詞Extracellular histones, Erythrocytes, Eryptosis, Apoptosis, Phosphatidylserine

上次更新時間 2020-20-09 於 23:14